European Union
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Anthem: Ode to Joy

Motto: Varietate in Concordia

(Unity in Diversity)



Official Language

English (International)




Supra-national Confederation

Head of State

Tripartite Presidency/single Consulship

Head of Government

Chairperson of the Supreme Council

Upper House

Supreme Council

Lower House

Central Hemicycle


500,000,000 approx (Member States)



The European Union is a superpower in Juubi-K's Code Geass fanfictions 'The Sum of Our Choices' and 'One and Only Son.' This article has been updated to meet the requirements of the 'Sum of Our Choices' Reboot.


The EU's primary Member-states include all states in what is traditionally considered Europe, as well as Armenia, Azerbaijan, Cyprus, Malta,the Russian Federation, and Turkey.


The French Revolution Edit

Historians still debate precisely what date should be given for the true birth of the European Union, or of the chain of events that brought it about. It is nevertheless clear that the modern union was born from the events of the French Revolution; itself an event too broad and complex to be concisely covered here.

Suffice to say, that from a period of 1798 to 1793, King Louis XVI of France went from being the all-powerful monarch of one of Europe's most powerful and wealthy nations to a condemned prisoner, executed by guillotine before a cheering crowd. His death marked the beginning of the end of a social order that had broadly persisted since the fall of Rome, and the birth of the world's future superpowers.

Though reviled as a monster it the end of his life, Louis XVI has since been reconsidered as a well-meaning incompetent; wanting to help his people, yet unable to take on the aristocratic vested interests that enriched themselves on France's wealth while the poor spent most of their income on food, and by 1789 were facing mass starvation. His good intentions would not save his authority from the fall of the Bastille on 14 July 1789, or his freedom from the slaughter of his Swiss Guards on 10 August 1792.

For in April of that year, revolutionary France had declared war on several of its neighbours; including the Holy Roman Empire, Prussia, Spain, Britain, and the Dutch Republic. With its armies ill-disciplined and left leaderless by the flight of aristocratic officers, France found itself in deadly danger; until on 20 September 1792, French forces finally repulsed a Prussian army at Valmy. The event proved a national sensation, and allowed the increasingly radical National Convention to declare a Republic the very next day. Louis himself would be executed in January of 1793, having been found guilty of "conspiracy against the public liberty and the general safety". His wife Marie Antoinette - one of the most misunderstood figures in French history - would follow him to the guillotine in October.

From June of 1793 to July of 1794, under the control of the Committee of Public Safety, France entered a period remembered as the Reign of Terror. Somewhere between sixteen and seventeen thousand people were executed as counter-revolutionaries - on the basis of circumstantial or tainted evidence - while as many as forty thousand died without trial or awaiting trial. This dark time, a forerunner of later totalitarian regimes, ended only with the downfall and death of the Committee's principal figure; the lawyer and Jacobin ideologue Maximilien Robespierre. The government that followed was led by a five-man Directory, overseeing a bicameral legislature; in an attempt to create a more sane and stable republic.

Directory and Consulate Edit

It is at this point that one of the pivotal figures in European and world history finally made his entrance. In spite of the repeated failure of Britannian-backed Royalist invasions, the arrival of Charles Philippe, Comte d'Artois, on French soil galvanised the Royalist movement. Ill-feeling towards the Convention was widespread, with Royalists taking the lead. On 12 Vendemiare (4th October), while Muscadins and other Royalists demonstrated in the streets, six sections of Paris declared against the Convention, and mobilised their National Guardsmen. This uprising might well have succeeded, if not for the frantic efforts of two particular individuals. One was Joachim Murat, a cavalry officer who managed to fight his way through to Sablon and return with forty cannons left there by de Menou. The other was a Corsican artillery officer, who had given Murat his orders to fetch the guns, and who would command them in the fighting to come. His name was Napoleon Bonaparte.

Born on the island of Corsica in 1769, a year after it had been transferred from Genoese sovereignty to that of France, Bonaparte was destined to seek his fortune in the service of France. Educated in Autun from 1779, and the military academy at Brienne-la-Chateau, his childhood was lonely and marred by bullying; often over the Italian accent he would never quite shake off. He nevertheless coped through a combination of bloody-mindedness and rambunctious self-confidence. His success at Brienne took him to the Ecole Militaire in Paris in 1784, from which he graduated after only one year to be commissioned in the La Fère artillery regiment. Like many artillery officers, a highly educated and professional bunch by the standards of the time, he developed an interest in reform and revolutionary politics, becoming a member of the Jacobin club. His first attempt at playing politics was in his native Corsica, where he served as a lieutenant-colonel of Corsican militia under the command of the nigh-legendary nationalist leader Pasquale Paoli. After trying and failing to overthrow Paoli - whom he believed to be a British agent - Bonaparte was forced to flee with his family to mainland France in June of 1793.

Despite this failure, great things awaited Bonaparte. He won fame at the Siege of Toulon, gaining a reputation as a dynamic leader and skilled tactician. Promoted to Brigadier General, he was given command of the artillery of the Army of Italy. The campaign of 1794, based on his plans, drove the Austrian Empire from northern Italy, winning the War of the First Coalition for France. But the fall of Robespierre left his career in limbo, and even as he dispersed the Royalists with a 'whiff of grapeshot' on 13 Vendemiaire, the Convention was turning itself into a new government; the Directory. The new government was distinctly modern, with a bicameral legislature and an executive made up of five Directors. It nevertheless proved unpopular, in part because so many of its members were formerly of the Convention, including some of those who signed Louis XVI's death warrant. Fearful of being assassinated if they tried to return to private life, the Directory's members held onto power by any means necessary; to the point of ignoring their own 1795 Constitution, overriding unfavorable election results, and using the army to suppress dissent.

The Directory's one saving grace was military success, in which Bonaparte played a considerable role. After marrying Josephine de Beauharnais in March of 1796, Bonaparte returned to Italy as commanding General of the Army of Italy. He found a badly-supplied and demoralized army, and led it to some of his most spectacular victories. Early in 1798, perhaps hoping to stay out of the ever-paranoid Directory's way, Bonaparte proposed the invasion and conquest of Egypt. On the way, he made a brief detour to capture the island of Malta, defended by the Knights of Saint John. Bonaparte landed in Egypt in July, and defeated the Egyptian Mamluks in a series of brutal battles. Even when a British fleet under Horatio Nelson destroyed his supporting fleet at the Battle of the Nile, Bonaparte continued his advance north into Syria. Despite capturing several towns, he failed to capture the vital fortress of Acre, and was forced to withdraw his plague-ridden army into Egypt. In 1799, having heard of French military defeats in Europe, Bonaparte managed to return to France. He returned to a hero's welcome, and although technically guilty of desertion, the moribund Directory was too weak to punish him.

Bonaparte was by this point convinced that the Directory had to go, and he was far from alone. With the help of his brother Lucien, he formed an alliance with two of the Five Directors; Joseph Fouché and Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès. Other co-conspirators included Foreign Minister Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord, and Roger Ducos, Speaker of the Council of Five Hundred. On 18 Brumaire (9 November), Lucien told the two councils that the Jacobins - who had been driven from power in June - were planning a counter-coup. The councils took his advice and moved to the Chateau de Saint-Cloud, while Bonaparte himself was given command of all local troops. Sieyès and Ducos resigned as Directors, and pressured Paul Barras to do likewise. The remaining two Directors, Louis Gohier and Jean-François-Auguste Moulin, were arrested and forced to cooperate.

By the next day, the two councils had realized that they were facing a coup. Despite being surrounded by Bonaparte's troops, they refused to cooperate with him or his co-conspirators. When Bonaparte faced the Council of Five Hundred, he was physically assaulted and had to be rescued by his escort of grenadiers. Lucien told the troops outside that armed deputies were threatening the rest of the council, pointing to Bonaparte's injuries as proof. In a gesture that would echo in history, he put his sword to his brother's heart and promised to plunge it in if he ever proved a traitor. The grenadiers stormed the building and expelled the deputies. In the evening, a remnant of the Council of Ancients legalized the coup and invested power in a new tripartite Consulate, consisting of Bonaparte, Ducos, and Sieyès.

But Bonaparte was not content to let Sieyès take power for himself, or to share power with two others. In the months that followed he worked to consolidate his position, a task made easier by his standing with the army. A public referendum of 7 February 1800 confirmed the new constitution, which vested primary executive power in the hands of the First Consul, Bonaparte himself; leaving the other two with only nominal powers. Of the three legislative assemblies set up under the new constitution, only the Sénat conservateur had any real power. Bonaparte's position was further strengthened by a military victory at Marengo on 14 June, where his Consular Guards won fame. In December he took advantage of a royalist bomb plot to rid himself of republican as well as royalist opposition. He was assisted in this by Sieyès, now head of the Senate. By this point, First Consul Bonaparte was in effect the ruler of France.

Dawn of the Eagles Edit

Napoleon's tenure as First Consul got off to a good start. Already an organisational genius, he unleashed his skills and drive on almost every aspect of French government and society. His reforms included a National Bank, a formal system of secondary schools, and a complete revamping of the legal system into the so-called Code Napoleon. He also settled France's complex relations with the Catholic Church with the Concordat of 1801, which acknowledged Catholicism as France's majority religion, granted it freedom of worship, and agreed to pay the salaries of French clerics. But in return, Napoleon reserved the right to appoint Bishops, required the clergy to swear an oath of loyalty to the state, and refused to return confiscated Church property. The Concordat nevertheless effectively ended the conflict between the new order and the Church.

But the peace was not destined to last. Britain, now under the leadership of the dynamic and ruthless Elizabeth III, declared war in May of 1803. The reasons were both economic and psychological; not merely due to a fear of being locked out of European markets by Napoleonic domination, but a general feeling of having lost control. Britain would not fight alone, however. Early in 1804, Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien, was convicted and executed - on dubious evidence - for trying to assassinate Napoleon. This damaged Napoleon's diplomatic standing, and caused Sweden and Russia to side with Britain.

But for all that, the final straw did not come until May of 1804. Despite his revolutionary background, Napoleon had become disillusioned with the idea of popular sovereignty. He believed that reason, not the popular will, was the ideal guarantor of good government. To this effect, he became convinced - or convinced himself - that France once again needed monarchical rule; but of a new kind, rather than the corrupt old monarchy of the Old Regime. On 18 May 1804, Napoleon was granted the title Emperor of the French by the Senate, and was crowned on 2 December 1804. To the powers of Europe this was one insult too many, made worse when he crowned himself King of Italy - using the Iron Crown of Milan - a year later. It was this that drove Austria - effective leader of the Holy Roman Empire - into joining the Third Coalition.

Napleon's response to these military threats was to gather a new army near Boulogne, with a view to invading Britain. This Army of England, later known as the La Grande Armée, became one of the largest and finest in human history. With so many men in one place, and the invasion delayed by the need to defeat the British Royal Navy, the army had plenty of time for training at all levels; allowing it to master complex movements and maneuvers in a way most of its European contemporaries could not. By 1805, it had grown into a vast force of 350,000, divided into independent Corps; each a free-standing army with its own infantry, cavalry, and artillery - usually between thirty and forty guns - capable of fighting its own battles until reinforced.

With the situation changing rapidly, Napoleon transferred the bulk of his forces east, for a campaign in southern Germany in support of his ally; the Electorate of Bavaria. Through rapid marching and and a fast wheeling maneuver, Napoleon defeated and captured an Austrian army at Ulm on 20 October. As a Russian army under General Kutuzov retreated to link up with surviving Austrian forces, Napoleon advanced on Vienna; capturing the city on 12 November. His subsequent and arguably greatest victory at Austerlitz - on 2 December 1805 - knocked Austria out of the war. Months later, on 6 August 1806, the Holy Roman Empire - which had endured for almost a thousand years - was finally dissolved; replaced with a French-led Confederation of the Rhine. Emperor Francis II continued to reign as Emperor of Austria; having declared the separate title in 1804 for just such an eventuality.

But Austerlitz was not Napoleon's only triumph in 1805. His attempts to defeat the British Royal Navy and gain control of the English Channel would finally bear fruit in that same year. After years spent largely trapped in port by the Royal Navy, French and Spanish fleets finally managed a full-scale breakout in March and April. Combining under the command of Admiral Pierre de Villeneuve, the fleet sailed to the West Indies, only to sail back to Europe in June with a British fleet - led by an exasperated Horatio Nelson - in pursuit. Nelson managed to catch the allied fleet near Cape Finisterre, but the resulting action was indecisive. Villeneuve led his fleet to Brest, with a view to supporting the French invasion of Britain, only to retreat to Cadiz when he mistook two British warships for scouts from the Channel fleet.

Enraged, Napoleon abandoned his invasion plan and sent his troops east for the Ulm Campaign; he also ordered Vice-Admiral François Rosily to go to Cadiz and take command of the fleet. Unwilling to give up command, a desperate Villenueve led his fleet out of Cadiz before Rosily could arrive. On 20 October, British frigates spotted the Franco-Spanish fleet leaving Cadiz, and Nelson prepared his fleet for action. His plan was customarily bold; splitting his fleet into two, and attacking the Franco-Spanish fleet in two columns, seeking to split it into three. For his own part, Villeneuve lost his nerve and attempted to return to Cadiz, only for the British ships to catch him up near Cape Trafalgar.

What followed was one of the most mysterious and tragic events of the Napoleonic period. Accounts of the Battle of Trafalgar vary, but there is a general consensus that the British battle plan broke down at a crucial point, with several ships seemingly attempting to leave the battle prematurely. Explanations for this range from a panic to a communication era - very easy in an age where ships communicated via semaphore flags - to outright treachery. In truth, the battle was a confused melee with both sides suffering heavy losses; but it was the death of Horatio Nelson, shot by a French sniper, that made it a French victory of any kind. The battle caused outrage in Britain, made all the worse when HMS Cadmus returned to port without her captain and several senior officers, and her seemingly mutinous crew defended themselves with talk of an aristocratic conspiracy. For his own part, Napoleon was unimpressed by the costly victory; and although he could not punish Villeneuve immediately, he never forgot his insubordination.

Britain Falls Edit

Despite the damage wrought on the British fleet at Trafalgar, and the loss of Nelson, it would take two more years before France could invade Britain. Napoleon spent much of this period distracted by the War of the Fourth Coalition - against Prussia, Russia, Saxony, and Sweden. This he ended swiftly, defeating the Prussians at Jena and Auerstadt, and driving the Russians out of Poland; making peace with Tsar Alexander at Tilsit in July of 1807. This gave Napoleon just enough time to rush back to France and take command of a new force set aside for the invasion. Meanwhile, Britain was wracked with political disorder; as Queen Elizabeth III struggled against aristocratic vested interests and growing public anger over the conduct of the war. The Cadmus Affair had caused a public outcry, with the Royal Navy seeking to execute the mutineers while the wider public demanded their exoneration. Elizabeth's intervention on the side of the mutineers enraged the officer corps and the aristocracy in general, with many officers resigning in protest. To make matters worse, French naval strategy since Trafalgar had been to wear down what was left of the Royal Navy; destroying its remnants piecemeal before they could unite.

The invasion began in August of 1807, with a series of landings along the south coast. These landings were supported by a force of hot air balloons; commanded by Napoleon's Chief Aeronaut, Sophie Blanchard. Contrary to popular myth, Napoleon did not seriously intend to land troops via balloon - Blanchard herself had shot down such suggestions - and nor was this the first aerial bombing raid. Some balloons did drop small, hand-held bombs as part of an experiment; but they caused little damage. The role of the balloons was primarily reconnaissance, though their presence contributed significantly to a mass panic along the coast. The first troops to land were units of light infantry and cavalry, whose job was first to screen the landings, and then to launch raids against nearby villages and towns; securing food and terrorizing the locals, adding to the general panic. Accompanying the landings were French combat engineers, who busied themselves with preparing fortified camps. Meanwhile, the local aristocracy - whose responsibility it was to organize the initial defense - dithered or argued among themselves; some pulling militia units away to defend their estates, others fleeing as quickly as their movable goods could be loaded. Any prospect of halting the invasion early - already a slim prospect - was lost.

But Elizabeth knew her nobles only too well, and had made her defense plan on the assumption that they would prove unhelpful. As word spread of the French landings, regular army and militia units mobilized and assembled in designated towns and cities; bringing their munitions and supplies with them. Interference by aristocrats and trouble-making by the lower orders - including pro-French agitation - complicated this process. But even as Napoleon took Portsmouth and managed to secure the south coast, he found himself faced with fortified towns and cities, protected by substantial garrisons. Though they could not hope to stop him, they were doing a fine job of slowing him down; exactly as their Queen intended. To make matters worse, the landing process was taking much longer than Napoleon had envisaged; a symptom of his lack of understanding of naval matters. Elizabeth further complicated matters by ordering a policy of 'scorched earth'; the removal or destruction of all foodstuffs from the French line of advance. Thanks to local resistance and aristocratic dithering, this policy was not carried out consistently.

Elizabeth's defense of her kingdom was hamstrung by two interconnected factors. One was the conflict between military necessity and public image, while the other was her increasingly bad relationship with the nobles and their interests. Her decision to move her government from London to York - though wise from a military point of view - damaged public morale and convinced many that Britain was already lost. Also, her nobles became increasingly enraged at having their lands and property abandoned to the French or else destroyed; to the point where some ignored her orders or actively tried to prevent their fulfillment. Elizabeth either did not understand their concerns or did not care; knowing that defeating a monstrosity like the Grande Armée required defense-in-depth.

Napoleon took London in late September; and found the government, all soldiers, and the Bank of England's gold reserves all gone. Perhaps realizing the situation he was in Napoleon began to take more risks; sending more and more of his light troops out in search of enemy armies, and trying to lure them into battle. He finally succeeded at Haslingfield near Cambridge; when a British force attempted to ambush his advance corps. But Napoleon was forewarned thanks to Blanchard's aeronauts, and he crushed the British force before moving on to take Cambridge. While Marshal Soult pushed west through Wessex, Napoleon made one last advance towards York, hoping at least to cover as much ground as possible before the winter.

But the British were not beaten yet. As Napoleon's vanguard approached Grantham, they encountered an army of 50,000 under the command of Sir Arthur Wellesley. Born into an Anglo-Irish gentry family, Wellesley had won fame as a soldier in India, playing a crucial role in the defeats of both Mysore and the Maratha Confederacy. This reputation made him attractive to Elizabeth; who sought for alternatives to the aristocrats who had caused her such trouble. Summoned back from Ireland early in 1807, Wellesley had been granted command of a reserve army based in Lincolnshire; which he quickly set about licking into shape. By early October, when the reserve became the front line, Wellesley's mixed force of regulars, militia, and amateur 'Volunteers' was ready for battle. At Grantham, he halted the French vanguard with a reverse-slope defence, then threw them back; only to be forced to retreat days later as Napoleon's main army approached.

Grantham was a much-needed boost for British morale, but it was also Britain's last hurrah. As Wellesley had his troops dig in around Lincoln, he learned that Elizabeth had headed north on a tour of inspection, intended to culminate in a brief stopover in Edinburgh. On top of that, he found himself under pressure from a clique of aristocratic officers, led by General de Bourgh, to support an attempted counter-attack on Napoleon's main army. Wellesley was under strict orders to attempt no such thing, and in any case knew that de Bourgh's force - made up mostly of militia and volunteers - was no match for Napoleon's battle-hardened troops. He pleaded with Richard le Bretan - the Queen's Chief Minister and current lover - to constrain de Bourgh and his confederates, but le Bretan ordered Wellesley to support the attack. The battle, near Fenton, was a disaster for the British; though Wellesley and his army fought well and were able to escape the rout.

Emperor and King Edit

But for all that, Britain might yet have triumphed, but for the events taking place in Edinburgh at that very moment. Elizabeth had set herself up at Edinburgh Castle, intending to direct the assembly and training of the troops before heading south. News that the French had become bogged down in Norfolk gave her hope. But she found Edinburgh incompetently administered, with food in short supply and the military logistics hopelessly disorganized. As word spread of their Queen's arrival, citizens of Edinburgh began to gather outside the castle, calling for bread and relief of their poverty. The gathering was peaceful at first, but the Edinburgh Revolutionary Council, as one of the local political clubs now called itself, started agitating among the crowds.

When the authorities tried to calm things down, the Revolutionaries unleashed their rank-and-file, a mixture of criminals, destitute weavers, dispossessed highlanders and other unfortunates. Edinburgh was plunged into chaos, and Elizabeth found herself besieged in the castle, with supplies for only a few days and no way to call for help. The Revolutionaries attempted a bluff, persuading the exhausted and despairing Queen that they were in control of the city, and that if she did not accede to their demands, then they would either storm the castle or leave its occupants to starve. Telling a tearful Sir Walter Scott "be off Sir Walter, I will not see you hang", Elizabeth signed both the abdication and an order for all troops to lay down their arms.

So sudden and unexpected was this victory, that the Edinburgh revolutionaries did not know what to do about it. Indeed, some historians have suggested that the abdication was a deliberate ploy by Elizabeth to escape from her imprisonment and rally loyal forces. If so, then it was a desperate and ultimately unsuccessful one. By the time Richard le Bretan famously rescued her, it was already too late for her to regain control. In those parts of the kingdom not under French occupation, law and order had broken down as word of the abdication spread. Revolutionary mobs rampaged through town and countryside in search of nobles and other 'enemies of the people'. They were opposed by a handful of remaining soldiers and militia, along with terrified townspeople and villagers who shouldered muskets and barricaded streets to defend their homes and property.

Bonaparte's response was to take ruthless advantage; pressing on until those British forces unwilling to surrender were pushed back into the north of England. But even then, he was becoming unsettled at the chaos around him. To defeat Britain's remaining forces was one thing, but to try and control a country collapsing into near-literal anarchy was quite another. Nearly three hundred-thousand French troops had been deployed to the British Isles - including the expedition to Ireland going on at the same time - and Napoleon knew that if they stayed there much longer, France's seemingly-pacified neighbors would start to get ideas. His best option was a negotiated solution, and in mid-November he managed to obtain a cease-fire from the Military Junta operating out of Newcastle. This done, he summoned the junta to a conference at the cathedral city of Durham, wherein he proposed a settlement. In return for Britain subordinating itself to France and surrendering its colonies, he would allow Prince Michael - Elizabeth's youngest brother - to take the throne in his sister's place, and he would withdraw his troops. Seeing that they were not going to get a better deal, the Junta acquiesced.

Napoleon quickly set about returning his troops to the continent, leaving only a small garrison to oversee the handover. In the meantime, his small army in Ireland oversaw the establishment of a new Irish republican government in Dublin. The Irish campaign had been something of a sideshow; with its British garrison having been largely withdrawn to the mainland. The French landings had been spearheaded by the Irish Legion; a cadre of Irish revolutionaries raised and trained by Napoleon in 1803, with a view to properly organizing Irish rebels in the event of an invasion. Following the new King Michael's recognition of an independent Ireland, and the withdrawal of the French troops, the Irish Legion formed the core of a new Irish army; and its leader, William Lawless, became Ireland's first Taoiseach, or Head of State.

King Michael's government faced extreme difficulty from its very first day. It faced opposition from both ends of the political spectrum; from hardline revolutionaries who wanted a republic, to hardline royalists who saw Elizabeth as the rightful Queen and Michael as at best a placeholder, at worst a treacherous usurper. Rebellions for one side or the other would plague Britain for nearly six years, with Napoleon doing little to help or hinder; seemingly content to let the British fight among themselves. The survival of Michael's government - and of monarchy in the British Isles - came down largely to a messy compromise between monarchy and an increasingly assertive Parliament. This compromise reduced Michael to a Constitutional Monarch with limited powers, but nevertheless gave him popular legitimacy in the new age. His sincere concern for the wellbeing of the common people helped considerably

The Spanish Crisis Edit

With Britain crushed, French dominance in Europe was beyond dispute. Napoleon had taken a terrible risk in launching his invasion so late in the year; but the payoff was handsome indeed. For seventeen years, Britain had been Revolutionary and then Imperial France's most stubborn and persistent enemy; fighting with money where it could not fight with men and ships. But without those funds, for Napoleon's remaining rivals to take him on was a much taller order. Concerned primarily with its own survival, the Austrian Empire was inclined to keep the peace. Prussia was resentful, but in no position to take France on alone. Far away in the east, Russia watched with suspicious eyes. To the west, Spain and Portugal seemed safely at heel. As 1807 passed into 1808, the peoples of Europe could have been forgiven for thinking that peace would finally break out.

But it was not to be. Just as Napoleon felt himself able to direct the development of his empire, complications arose in Spain. For many years Spain had been a reluctant but faithful ally of France, and the victory at Trafalgar and the defeat of the British had seemed to cement that bond. The living symbol of the alliance was Manuel Godoy, Prime Minister and favorite of King Carlos IV and Queen Maria Louisa; a complex and slippery character in a complex and slippery age. Having reputedly gained Royal attention through his singing and guitar playing, he was accused more than once of having affairs with the Queen. But he was also a capable politician and administrator, who enjoyed the complete trust of the less-than-capable King Carlos. In 1801, as Captain-General, he led Spanish troops in a joint war with France against Portugal; a minor affair known to history as the War of the Oranges, which along with Britain's defeat left Portugal cowed.

But for all Godoy's apparent power, he was not without enemies. In Spain he was far from universally popular; being seen in some quarters as a French puppet, or the power behind the throne. Trade disruption caused by the war, and Godoy's policy of siding with atheist France against Christian (if Anglican) Britain only deepened public ill-feelign. Matters came to a head when rumours spread of a secret treaty with France, one intended to divide up Portugal and deliver Spain into the hands of Napoleon. It is known that Godoy had negotiated the so-called Treaty of Fontainebleu with France over the previous years, intending to divide up Portugal and grant himself one of the largest portions; the Kingdom of the Algarves. But Napoleon never ratified such a treaty, and his own writings strong imply that he never trusted Godoy. It may have been that with Britain - Portugal's oldest ally - finally defeated, Napoleon felt that Portugal was no longer a threat; and that with so many troops tied up in Britain, he did not want to provoke further troubles for the moment.

Nevertheless, opposition to Godoy finally erupted into violence in March of 1808, in the so-called Mutiny of Aranjuez. At Aranjuez, where Godoy and the Royal family were staying, rebellious citizens and soldiers attacked and stormed Godoy's residence, capturing him. The King was also captured, and forced first to dismiss Godoy, and then to abdicate in favour of his son, Prince Ferdinand of Asturias, who was also Godoy's most senior enemy. Promptly acclaimed as King Ferdinand VII, Ferdinand sought desperately to win Napoleon's recognition. But the Emperor was having none of it; indeed, he may have relished the opportunity this represented. Summoning both Kings to Bayonne, he forced Carlos to abdicate in favour of himself, and imprisoned Ferdinand; before launching a full-scale invasion of the now leaderless Spain.

The result, perhaps inevitably, was an eruption of new conflict; as Austria formed the Fifth Coalition with Spain and Sardinia. Austria was quick to open up a second front, invading the Duchy of Warsaw and Bavaria in the hope of drawing Prussia into the conflict, and perhaps even convincing the Confederation of the Rhine to turn against Napoleon. But in Poland they faced a large and determined Polish and Saxon army, ably commanded by Marshal Jozef Poniatowski; nephew to Stanislaus II, last King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Though he was technically defeated at Razyn in April of 1809, he managed to turn the tables on the Austrians by abandoning the indefensible Warsaw, then bypassing the distracted Austrians to take Krakow. Napoleon, thinking the Spanish situation under control, took personal command of his forces in Germany and forced the Austrians out of Bavaria. He then invaded Austria, and suffered his first real defeat at Aspern-Essling in May; but the Austrian army under Archduke Charles failed to capitalize on the victory, and Napoleon quickly turned the situation around, capturing Vienna in early July.

More to Come



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Politics Edit



2010 Refugee Crisis



The EU's armed forces are made up of the combined forces of the individual member states, known as 'State forces'. These function as part of a standardized command structure, centered around Central Command HQ in Paris. Uniforms and equipment have also been standardized under the Millennium  

Famous and Infamous EuropeansEdit

Napoleon Bonaparte Edit

King Michael I of Great BritainEdit

Perhaps the most unlikely character ever to sit on the throne of Great Britain; Michael I was also the last Tudor-Stuart in the male line to rule in the British Isles.

Born in 1793, he was the runt of a litter of four children born to Prince Henry, younger brother of King Charles III. His mother was the Lady Charlotte Meltonstone, his father's second and much younger wife. His older brothers - Prince Henry and Prince James - by all accounts treated him badly, perhaps for political reasons. In sharp contrast, his older half-sister Elizabeth regarded him kindly, once describing him as her only sibling with whom she could have a civilized conversation. Following her palace coup in 1799, she named Michael as her heir-presumptive, and allowed him to continue residing with his mother at Kew.

In 1803, Elizabeth sent the ten-year-old Michael to the Royal estate at Sandringham, where he was tasked with managing the estate as part of his education. This has been taken in some quarters as a sign of Elizabeth having grand plans for Michael; perhaps grooming him to be her Chief Minister in the future. It may also have been to remove him from the sight of her then Chief Minister and lover, Richard le Bretan. Often visited by his mother, Michael spent four happy years at Sandringham under the considerate guidance of his tutor, Sir Adrian Wyngarde. He also became close to some of the children of his father's mistresses, notably his half-sister the Lady Jessica Fitzhenry.

These happy times came to an end in August of 1807, when the armies of Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, invaded Britain. As Elizabeth retreated north to rally her forces, she ordered her brother to remain at Sandringham; ostensibly for his safety. At this time, law and order was breaking down as pro-French and anti-government rebels took up arms, and nobles took advantage of the emergency to settle old scores; for Michael to travel anywhere would have been risky. But as Elizabeth's armies were defeated and driven back, Michael found himself all but alone. Barely more than a child, he did his best to rally troops and organise what resources he had available. But when a rebel warband attacked the estate, it was only the intervention of local people - whom Michael had long treated kindly - that prevented a massacre.

As Britain collapsed into chaos around him, Michael's fortunes took an unexpected turn with the arrival of none other than the Emperor Napoleon at Sandringham. While enjoying Michael's hospitality, Napoleon turned on the charm, and made him an offer he could not refuse; to become Napoleon's ally, in return for the crown and the withdrawal of French troops. This distressed Michael greatly, and it took days of cajolling by Napoleon and several British politicians - captured by Napoleon's forces - that this was for the best.

More to come.