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European Ultra-Union
800px-Flag of Europe svg

Anthem: Ode to Joy

Motto: Varietate in Concordia

(Unity in Diversity)

Capital

Paris

Official Language

English (International)

Demonym

European

Government

Supra-national Confederation

Head of State

Tripartite Presidency/single Consulship

Head of Government

Chairperson of the Supreme Council

Upper House

Supreme Council

Lower House

Central Hemicycle

Population

500,000,000 approx (Member States)

Currency

Euro

The European Union is a superpower in Juubi-K's Code Geass fanfictions 'The Sum of Our Choices' and 'One and Only Son.' This article has been updated to meet the requirements of the 'Sum of Our Choices' Reboot.

GeographyEdit

Members The EU's primary Member-states include all states in what is traditionally considered Europe, as well as Armenia, Azerbaijan, Cyprus, Malta,the Russian Federation, and Turkey.

HistoryEdit

Age of Revolution Edit

The origins of the modern EU lie 1789, with the calling of the French Estates General in Paris. Brought together to find solutions to the economic and social problems that plagued France at the time, the estates soon found themselves divided between the First and Second estates - the Clergy and the Nobility respectively, and the Third estate; everyone else. Though the Third estate outnumbered the other two by a considerable margin, it was sidelined by a voting system in which each estate had one vote; allowing the First and Second estates to outvote it. Frustrated Third estate delegates met in the Tennis Court at Versailles on June 20th, swearing their famous oath not to separate until their demands were met. Unable and perhaps unwilling to use force to break them up, King Louis XVI recognised the validity of the 'National Constituent Assembly', as the delegates called themselves. Nevertheless, many Parisians feared that the King or the other two estates would attempt to break the new assembly by force. On July 14th a Paris mob marched on the infamous Bastille fortress, demanding that its garrison surrender and hand over the weapons rumoured to be stockpiled within. The garrison fought back, until army defectors - including the King's own Gardes Francaises Regiment, arrived to support the Parisians. The Bastille fell in the afternoon, and the French Revolution was underway.

Over the next three years, France would go from absolute monarchy, to constitutional monarchy, to revolutionary republic. Tainted by his attempt to escape from Paris in June of 1791, Louis XVI was later deposed and then executed in 1792. But significant changes had taken place in French society well before then. The year 1789 saw the abolition of feudalism and clerical privileges, the Declaration of the Rights of Man, and the writing of France's first modern Constitution. In April of 1792, with tensions mounting across Europe, France declared war on Austria and Prussia. The execution of the King brought Britannia, Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands into the war in 1793. As France was slowly crushed under the combined might of Europe, the new French government - dominated by the Jacobin party - turned to ever more radical measures in order to survive. In an attempt to properly organise the hundreds of thousands of Frenchmen who had volunteered to fight for their country, the government issued the so-called Levée en Masse edict in August of 1793. It's opening words set the tone for the war to come;

From this moment until such time as its enemies shall have been driven from the soil of the Republic, all Frenchmen are in permanent requisition for the services of the armies. The young men shall fight; the married men shall forge arms and transport provisions; the women shall make tents and clothes and shall serve in the hospitals; the children shall turn old lint into linen; the old men shall betake themselves to the public squares in order to arouse the courage of the warriors and preach hatred of kings and the unity of the Republic.

The actual mobilisation did not quite reach the levels this paragraph implied, but it was nevertheless beyond anything seen before. By september of 1794, French armies had a fighting strength of around 800,000, supported by a vast military-industrial complex overseen by the mathematician Lazare Carnot.

But France's troubles had been political as well as military in this period. 1791 and 1792 had seen political chaos in France, and especially in Paris. Widespread fears of Royalist plots and foreign invasion repeatedly spilled over into violence, with riots in many cases deliberately stirred up by agitating journalists such as Jean Paul Marat and Jacques Hebert. In one particular incident in September of 1792, mobs of National Guardsmen stormed the prisons of Paris and killed thousands of prisoners, most of them petty criminals. The situation grew ever more volatile, as the extremist Montagnard and moderate Girondin parties struggled for control. The Girondins were by this point in decline, discredited by the failure of a war they had started, and which they had promised would spread republicanism and liberty across the whole of Europe. Their final defeat came on May 31st 1793, when a mob of sans-culottes (as the rank-and-file militants were known) stormed the Tuileries Palace and threatened the Convention; as the elected legislature of France was now known. Led by Jacques Roux and Jacques Hebert - members of a radical clique known as the Enraged - they issued a series of demands, including the arrest of 29 Girondin leaders. The Convention had no choice but to comply, leaving the Montagnards in effective control alongside their allies; the Jacobin movement. The rise of the Jacobins to power, culminating in the election of Maximilien Robespierre to the Committee of Public Safety in July 1793, would mark the start of a new era; the Reign of Terror.

In many ways, Robespierre's 'terror' was a backlash against the chaos of the years preceding it. For men like Marat and Hebert, liberty was embodied in the mob, in the armed citizenry unleashing righteous violence against all who would decieve or oppress them. For Robespierre, liberty lay in inner virtue and public order, to be imposed by any means necessary. But if Robespierre and the Committee put an end to the terror of the mob and the agitator, they replaced it with the terror of the state. Jacobin France became in many respects a totalitarian state, with dissent of any kind coming to be regarded as counter-revolutionary. Of the tens of thousands executed in the course of Robespierre's tenure, around seventy per cent were workers or peasants; their crimes usually being hoarding, draft-dodging, desertion, or even outright rebellion. But his ruthlessness only served to weaken his grip over time, as revolutionary virtue came to be associated with endless bloodletting. Robespierre ended up making enemies everywhere, not least by his executions of revolutionary heroes such as Georges Danton, Jacques Hebert, and Camille Desmoulins. The final straw for many was his attempt to impose a new religion; the Cult of the Supreme Being. He then made the mistake of summoning any officials or representants en mission who refused to help implement the new religion back to Paris to answer for their actions; a case of keeping his enemies too close. On 8 Thermidor (26 July 1794), Robespierre further provoked his enemies with a ranting speech before the Convention, alluding to 'traitors' while failing to name names; thus convincing many that they were next for theguilloutine. The next day, the Convention turned on Robespierre, condemning him as a tyrant and a man of blood. Robespierre and his followers fled the Hall of Liberty under the protection of loyal troops, only to be captured later at the Hotel de Ville. Robespierre and 21 of his colleagues were condemned and executed on 10 Thermidor (28 July 1794).

The Thermidorian Reaction, as the overthrow of Robespierre came to be known, brought its own brand of chaos. The dismantling of the Committee's terror regime also led to the dismantling of its economic controls, exemplified by the 'Law of Maximum.' The result was uncontrollable inflation, with paper currency degrading to as little as 3% of its assigned value. The refusal of farmers to accept the 'assignats' led to food shortages and outright famine throughout the country. By contrast, the better-off in French society met this time of crisis with an outbreak of decadance. Known as Incroyables and Merveillueses, these men and women revelled in self-expression through luxurious, over-blown fashions. It was the female Merveillueses who popularised a revival of ancient Greek and Roman styles in female fashion, scandalizing polite society with high-waisted, low-cut, and sometimes see-through dresses and tunics. The movement even had a militant wing in the form of the Muscadins, or jeunesse doree, dandyish youths who made a habit of attacking known or suspected Jacobins or sans-culottes with wooden sticks. May of 1795 saw the last hurrah of the sans-culottes when, on 1 Prairial, a Parisian mob stormed the Convention and tried to force it to release Jacobin prisoners and ensure food supplies. The rebels were put down by loyal troops, and the Paris mob would not rise again for many decades. Boosted by this, and military success outside of France, the Convention spent the following months crushing what remained of the Jacobin movement and voting to reorganise itself. These measures, which included an electoral college and a bicameral legislature, were as much as anything else intended to protect the Convention's members from prosecution or revenge over their past deeds.

Directory and Consulate Edit

It is at this point that one of the pivotal figures in European and world history finally made his entrance. In spite of the repeated failure of Britannian-backed Royalist invasions, the arrival of Charles Philippe, Comte d'Artois, on French soil galvanised the Royalist movement. Ill-feeling towards the Convention was widespread, with Royalists taking the lead. On 12 Vendemiare (4th October), while Muscadins and other Royalists demonstrated in the streets, six sections of Paris declared against the Convention, and mobilised their National Guardsmen. By the time the Convention understood the danger it was in, at midnight on the morning of 13 Vendemiaire, it had only five thousand loyal troops under the command of General de Menou with which to fend off a Royalist uprising of between thirty and forty thousand. This uprising might well have succeeded, if not for the frantic efforts of two particular individuals. One was Joachim Murat, a cavalry officer who managed to fight his way through to Sablon and return with forty cannons left there by de Menou. The other was a Corsican artillery officer, who had given Murat his orders to fetch the guns, and who would command them in the fighting to come. His name was Napoleon Bonaparte.

Born on the island of Corsica in 1769, a year after it had been transferred from Genoese sovereignty to that of France, Napoleon was destined to seek his fortune in the service of France. Educated in Autun from 1779, and the military academy at Brienne-la-Chateau, his childhood was lonely and marred by bullying; often over the Italian accent he would never quite shake off. He nevertheless coped through a combination of bloody-mindedness and rambunctious self-confidence. His success at Brienne took him to the Ecole Militaire in Paris in 1784, from which he graduated after only one year to be commissioned in the La Fère artillery regiment. Like many artillery officers, a highly educated and professional bunch by the standards of the time, he developed an interest in reform and revolutionary politics, becoming a member of the Jacobin club. His first attempt at playing politics was in his native Corsica, where he served as a lieutenant-colonel of Corsican militia under the command of the nigh-legendary nationalist leader Pasquale Paoli. After the failure of an attack on Maddalena Island in February of 1793, Napoleon became convinced that Paoli was a Royalist and a Britannian agent; the former was entirely true, the latter only partially so. After trying and failing to overthrow Paoli, Napoleon was forced to flee with his family to mainland France in June of 1793. Corsica became a protectorate of the Britannian Empire, only to be reconquered by France in 1796.

Despite this failure, great things awaited Napoleon. He won fame at the Siege of Toulon, gaining a reputation as a dynamic leader and skilled tactician. Promoted to Brigadier General, he was given command of the artillery of the Army of Italy. The campaign of 1794, based on his plans, drove the Austrian Empire from northern Italy, winning the War of the First Coalition for France. But the fall of Robespierre left his career in limbo, and even as he dispersed the Royalists with a 'whiff of grapeshot' on 13 Vendemiaire, the Convention was turning itself into a new government; the Directory. The new government was distinctly modern, with a bicameral legislature and an executive made up of five 'Directors'. It nevertheless proved unpopular, in part because so many of its members were formerly of the Convention, including some of those who signed Louis XVI's death warrant. Fearful of being assassinated if they tried to return to private life, the Directory's members held onto power by any means necessary; to the point of ignoring their own 1795 Constitution, overriding unfavourable election results, and using the army to suppress dissent. If the French people had hoped for a moderate, compromise government that would put an end to the ideological strife and bloodshed of previous years, what they got was an ineffectual, self-perpetuating oligarchy. The response of the majority was bitter, cynical indifference.

The Directory's one saving grace was military success, in which Napoleon played a considerable role. After marrying Josephine Beauharnais in March of 1796, Napoleon returned to Italy as commanding General of the Army of Italy. He found a badly-supplied and demoralised army, and led it to some of his most spectacular victories. Early in 1798, perhaps hoping to stay out of the ever-paranoid Directory's way, Napoleon proposed the invasion and conquest of Egypt; with a view to gaining greater access to France's allies in India and disrupting Britannian trade. On the way, he made a brief detour to capture theisland of Malta, defended by the Knights of Saint John (otherwise known as the Hospitallers). The French-dominated order surrendered after a brief struggle, its members having no desire to fight fellow Frenchmen, regardless of their politics. Napoleon landed in Egypt in July, and defeated the Egyptian Mamluks in a series of brutal battles. Even when a Britannian fleet under Horatio Nelson destroyed his supporting fleet at the Battle of the Nile, Napoleon continued his advance north into Syria. Despite capturing several towns, he failed to capture the vital fortress of Acre, and was forced to withdraw his plague-ridden army into Egypt. In 1799, having heard of French military defeats in Europe, Napoleon managed to return to France. He returned to a hero's welcome, and although technically guilty of desertion, the moribund Directory was too weak to punish him.

Napoleon was by this point convinced that the Directory had to go, and he was far from alone. With the help of his brother Lucien, he formed an alliance with two of the Five Directors; Joseph Fouché and Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès. Other co-conspirators included Foreign Minister Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord, and Roger Ducos, Speaker of the Council of Five Hundred. On 18 Brumaire (9 November), Lucien told the two councils that the Jacobins - who had been driven from power in June - were planning a counter-coup. The councils took his advice and moved to the Chateau de Saint-Cloud, while Napoleon himself was given command of all local troops. Sieyès and Ducos resigned as Directors, and pressured Paul Barras to do likewise. The remaining two Directors, Louis Gohier and Jean-François-Auguste Moulin, were arrested and forced to cooperate. By the next day, the two councils had realized that they were facing a coup. Despite being surrounded by Napoleon's troops, they refused to cooperate with him or his co-conspirators. When Napoleon faced the Council of Five Hundred, he was physically assaulted and had to be rescued by his escort of grenadiers. Lucien told the troops outside that armed deputies were threatening the rest of the council, pointing to Bonaparte's injuries as proof. The grenadiers stormed the building and expelled the deputies.

In the evening, a remnant of the Council of Ancients legalized the coup and invested power in a new tripartite Consulate, consisting of Napoleon, Ducos, and Sieyès. But Napoleon was not content to let Sieyès take power for himself, or to share power with two others. In the months that followed he worked to consolidate his position, a task made easier by his standing with the army. A public referendum of 7 February 1800 confirmed the new constitution, which vested primary executive power in the hands of the First Consul, Bonaparte himself; leaving the other two with only nominal powers. Of the three legislative assemblies set up under the new constitution, only the Sénat conservateur had any real power. Napoleon's position was further strengthened by a military victory at Marengo on 14 June, where his Consular Guards won fame. In December he took advantage of a royalist bomb plot to rid himself of republican as well as royalist opposition. He was assisted in this by Sieyès, now head of the Senate. By this point, First Consul Bonaparte was in effect the ruler of France.

Dawn of the Eagles Edit

Though infuriating to hardliners on both the political Left and Right, Napoleon's regime was broadly acceptable to, even popular with, the bulk of the French population. After years of chaos and bloodshed, it seemed that France finally had a statesmanlike leader, capable of solving the Republic's myriad problems. Of his many reforms, one of the most significant was the Code civil des Français (popularly dubbed the 'Code Napoleon'), which came into force in March of 1804. Aside from guaranteeing freedom of religion and abolishing birth privileges, the code completely revamped the French legal system, replacing the patchwork feudal system and newer revolutionary legislation with a single, universal code; which drew heavily on ancient Roman law. Major changes included the introduction of juries for criminal trials, and a guarantee of legal counsel for all defendants. He also revamped the administration, and began a series of public works projects intended to improve infrastructure and encourage trade. In religious matters, this period saw the 1801 Concordat between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII. It maintained the principle of secularism (laicite), and required that all priests swear an oath to the state (in return for paying their salaries), but in return acknowledged Catholicism as the majority religion and allowed the Church to depose bishops (though the state still nominated them).

But Napoleon was not the same man as he had been in 1791. While he still broadly believed in the ideals of the Revolution, their innocence - like his own - had long since been lost. For him, liberty, equality, and fraternity all had to defer to the maintenance of public order. One of his darkest memories was of the Massacre of the Swiss Guards in Paris; where he claimed to have seen Parisian women beheading drummer boys and parading their heads on pikes. In a meeting of his inner circle, he described his attitude thusly;

They say that I have oppressed liberty? What is this thing called liberty? What is this ideal so many have died for? Is it the liberty of nature, as Rousseau kept waxing lyrical about? In nature, the fox devours the lamb, constrained only by the farmer. This is the liberty of the thief to rob, the mob to kill and destroy, constrained only by order. Robespierre said that virtue without terror is impotent, and that terror without virtue is blind. I say that order without liberty is tyranny, and liberty without order is chaos.

The bourgeois character of Napoleon's regime can also be seen in his handling of the armed forces. The French army was by this point famous (or infamous) for its meritocracy, with the bulk of officers rising from the ranks. Napoleon maintained this system only out of necessity, but sought to gradually replace it with a system of professional education for officers. This began with the establishment of the Ecole special militaire at Saint Cyr, and with the creation in early 1804 of the Velites. The Velites were a means of resolving a problem that had dogged the French army since the revolution; how to get the sons of the well-to-do to serve their country.

In theory, conscription applied to all males regardless of their background or means. This did not make certain young men any more willing to face the harshness and danger of military life, and draft-dodging was rife throughout the period. The better-off took advantage of an informal system of substitution, by which a youth could escape the draft by presenting someone else to take his place (having usually been paid for his trouble by the youth's family). Though this was tolerated as a convenient means of making up the numbers, it helped to rob the army of the educated young men it desperately needed. Napoleon's Velites were a way of pandering to the ambitions and sensibilities of the middle class while securing their sons' services. Applicants had to prove a basic education, and their families had to pay a stipend for the privilege. In return, they would have their educations polished while being sent into battle only when absolutely necessary. The prestige associated with the Velites, which were part of the Consular (later Imperial) Guard was a major draw, and helped to bind the middle class to Napoleon.

Napoleon's first great test as Emperor came with the War of the Third Coalition, with Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Sweden against him. The year 1805 was a glorious one, netting him victories at Ulm, Austerlitz, and Trafalgar. The Ulm campaign, in which he outflanked and defeated Austrian forces under Karl Mack von Leiberich, was arguably the greatest of his career. It led him to capture Vienna, and then to defeat an Austro-Russian army at the Battle of Austerlitz. This victory brought Austria and Russia to terms, effectively ending the Third Coalition. Despite this, and the loss of much of the British fleet at Trafalgar, Queen Elizabeth III vowed to fight on. This determination may have led Emperor Francis of Austria to comment "the British are dealers of human flesh. They pay others to fight at their place." The Treaty of Pressburg, signed on 26 December, ceded Austrian holdings in Italy and Bavaria to France, and forced Austria to recognise the new Kingdoms of Wurttemburg and Bavaria. Within months France's new German allies had been organised into the Confederation of the Rhine, while Francis surrendered his title of Holy Roman Emperor, naming himself Emperor of Austria instead. The Holy Roman Empire was dead, and the Austrian Empire born from its ashes.

But the war was not yet over, as Prussia took Austria's place in the coalition. Napoleon's response was a full-scale invasion, culminating in the twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt on 14 October 1806. Despite outnumbering Napoleon's forces two-to-one, the Prussian army was poorly-led, and in tactics and organisation had changed little since the days of Frederick the Great. Around a quarter of the Prussian troops would be killed, wounded, or captured on the day of the battles alone. Prussian resistance was all but over by November with the taking of Magdeburg, after which King Frederick William III surrendered. Napoleon went on to defeat the Russians at Eylau, and again at Friedland in June of 1807. The Treaty of Tilsit, signed in the following month, deprived Prussia of half its population, with the transferred territories being transferred into the Kingdom of Westphalia, the Duchy of Warsaw, and the Free City of Danzig. It also brought Russia into alliance with France, rendering the rest of Europe essentially powerless. From then on Napoleon was, for all intents and purposes, the master of Europe.

Only Britain still held out, a problem Napoleon intended to remedy. With the summer passing, Napoleon's marshals pleaded with him to leave the invasion until the following year, but he would not be dissuaded. The opening moves began in early august, with French warships blockading British ports and engaging the small number of British warships available to oppose them. Between French attacks on shipyards and Elizabeth's ruthless purging of a politically unreliable officer corps, British naval power had yet to recover from the disaster that was Trafalgar. The first landings took place in early September, accompanied by near-simultaneous landings in Ireland. News of the landings sparked off another Irish rebellion, from which the officers of the Irish Legion drew recruits to form their unit. Spearheaded by the marins de la Garde Imperiale, French troops quickly established beach-heads at Sheerness and Chatham. Troops were also landed further south near Dymchurch, only to find themselves stuck behind the Royal Military Canal. The landings were accompanied by one of the war's great peculiarities; a series of balloon flights masterminded by Napoleon's chief aeronaut, Sophie Blanchard. The flights had little military purpose beyond reconnaissance, but served to cause confusion and panic among the British public, complicating the defence. Within a few days, the better part of a hundred-thousand troops were ashore.

London fell quickly to the invaders, having been judged indefensible and abandoned by Elizabeth. But when Napoleon tried to advance further, he found himself marching through a ruined land; the result of Elizabeth's last order before fleeing London. It was only thanks to the incompetence or insubordination of the nobles, some of whom had not recieved the order or demurred at carrying it out, that the land south of York was not entirely scorched. The plan nevertheless worked, for Napoleon was forced to halt his main advance near Cambridge due to supply shortages. His southern army, under Marshal Soult, defeated and destroyed a large British army, made up mostly of militia, near Basingstoke on October 14th. This was a serious defeat for the British, but by no means a fatal one. Elizabeth had established her headquarters at York, and was overseeing the assembly of a much larger army there. In November both sides were forced to enter winter quarters, though small-scale combat continued throughout the winter. This period saw southern England collapse into chaos, with some civilians fleeing before the advancing French, while others barricaded streets and shouldered muskets to defend their homes and property. Despondency spread among Napoleon's inner circle, some of whom feared the hard fighting that was sure to come.

King and Emperor Edit

Fearing to wait any longer, Napoleon opened his 1808 campaign at the end of March. The parlous state of the roads as his armies passed north of the Wash slowed his progress, and multiple British field armies opposed him. But Britain's defence was hampered by the low quality of many of the commanding generals, to say nothing of the deep suspicion that pervaded their ranks. Napoleon's agents had also been hard at work, trying to stir up discontent into a campaign of sabotage and open revolt. At first the effects were relatiely mild, but as more and more militia and regular troops were gathered to oppose Napoleon's armies, the revolutionaries enjoyed progressively greater freedom of action. Food riots spread across northern England, and revolutionary bands occasionally carried out more daring acts, such as the burning of military warehouses, the destruction of bridges, and assaults on stately homes. The state responded with brutal repression, putting the revolts down bloodily whenever it could spare the resources. Napoleon did little to help his erstwhile allies, dismissing them as canaglie to be used and discarded as he saw fit. But the revolutionaries' crowning achivement came in May, when Elizabeth arrived in Edinburgh as part of a tour of inspection. Accompanied by only a force of horse guards, she soon found herself besieged in Edinburgh castle by a mob of stirred up by local revolutionary clubs. Already ill from stress, with food running out, and with news that York was under siege, an exhausted Elizabeth agreed to abdicate, surrendering the country to Napoleon.

But for Napoleon, this was far from the end of the matter. A week later, Elizabeth vanished from her prison at Edinburgh castle, resurfacing several months later in North America. The trickle of refugees became a torrent, as nobles and others with the means to do so escaped across the Atlantic ocean. For Napoleon, all that remained for him in Britain was chaos, as anti-French rebels, revolutionaries, counter-revolutionaries, and troublemakers of all shapes and sizes fought for what was left of that broken kingdom. With Britain collapsing around him, Napoleon searched desperately for someone who could run the country on his behalf. His eye soon fell on the fourteen-year-old Prince Michael, the unprepossessing youngest brother of Elizabeth, by then holed up at the Royal estate at Sandringham in Kent. With him was a small provisional government led by William Grenville and Charles James Fox. By the time Napoleon arrived in August of 1808, Michael was in bed with influenza, and defended by a few thousand regulars and miltia; the ragged survivors of shattered armies. Seeing that the situation was hopeless, Michael bade his few soldiers stand down, and Napoleon entered the estate under flag of truce. After several days of tense negotiations, it was decided that Michael would take the throne as King Michael I; Elizabeth having both abdicated her throne and then abandoned her country. There would be no French garrison, but Britain would maintain no navy and an army only large enough to maintain the civil peace. Also, all British overseas holdings where to be turned over to French authority, to be disposed-of as France saw fit. These terms were formalised in the Treaty of London, signed in October. This included recognition of Ireland as an independent Republic.

The first years of Michael's reign were difficult to say the least. To many Royalists his claim to the throne was questionable, at least while Elizabeth still lived. To anti-French elements, he was at best a helpless child surrounded by collaborators, at worst a collaborator himself. To conservatives he was too liberal, to liberals he was too conservative. His early survival came down largely to the fact that he was the only King available, as well as the support of a new army under the command of Lieutenant-General Sir Arthur Wellesley. Though Wellesley was loyal to his young King, it irked him to have to use armed force against fellow Britons, while maintaining submission to French dominion; to say nothing of the loss of Ireland. Government was handled largely by Grenville, at the head of a largely liberal Provisional Parliament. Its primary business for the first two years of its existence was the putting-down of disorder, and reuniting the country by force. Despite being restricted to only fifty thousand men, Wellesley's army proved more than sufficient against disorganised, ill-equipped rebels. By 1810, major rebel activity had ceased across England, Scotland, and Wales. Relations with the Irish Republic remained tense, especially due to supposed Irish involvement in some of the rebellions.

The beginning of the Irish Republic, formally declared in Dublin in October of 1808, was itself a tense affair. At first it took the form of a change of garrisons, as British troops were withdrawn in favour of French troops. The main Irish contribution was the 3rd Foreign Regiment, otherwise known as the Irish Regiment. Founded in 1803 as part of Napoleon's invasion plan, it had previously existed as an officer cadre, made up primarily of survivors of the ill-fated 1798 rebellion. Upon landing at Dublin with the French, the regiment was expanded to its full strength with local Irish volunteers, then redesignated as the 1st Regiment of the new Irish Army. Its officers, including William Lawless and Miles Byrne, would play a crucial role in Irish politics over the following decades. Lawless was appointed as provisional President of the new Republic on November 1st, tasked with overseeing the transfer of power and organising the new government before formal elections could be held. His first challenge lay in overcoming deep-rooted antagonism between Ireland's differing religious and political communities. Though urban Protestants and rural Catholics were broadly supportive, the new Republic faced resistance from largely Protestant loyalists concentrated in Ulster. Faced with twenty thousand French troops, a growing Irish army, and no prospect of help from Britain, the majority of loyalists chose emigration over violence; most of them across the ocean to North America.

Napoleon's most troublesome enemy had at last been brought to heel, but further challenges awaited. In Spain, unpopular pro-French policies had led to riots, and March of 1808 had seen King Charles IV of Spain, hitherto Napoleon's ally, forced to abdicate in favour of his son Ferdinand. Napoleon's initial confidence was shattered when the Spanish Royal Army joined the uprisings, which were spreading across Spain and Portugal; the latter under joint Franco-Spanish occupation. Napoleon was forced to deploy around seventy thousand troops to reinforce his beleagured forces, with his brother Joseph having overall command. Though Marshal Bessieres was able to defeat a Spanish army at Medina del Rio Seco, French forces met disaster after disaster elsewhere; the single worse being the Battle of Bailen in July, which ended with French Generals Dupont and Vedel surrendering around twenty-five thousand troops to a larger Spanish army. Joseph Bonaparte, who had only recently been crowned King of Spain in Ferdinand's place, was forced to flee from Madrid.

The relative success of the Spanish uprisings sent shockwaves across Europe, giving hope to those who sought to resist Napoleon. The result was an upsurge in 'double patriotism', with individuals or groups seeking service with foreign powers in the hope of liberating their countries from French dominion. One of the most famous double patriots was Carl von Clausewitz, a Prussian army officer who served in the Russian army, and who would later go on to write the military treatise On War. Napoleon's response was to enter Spain with two hundred thousand troops, many of them freed up by the defeat of Britain. At Pancorbo and Burgos, Napoleon routed the Spanish regulars and militias, though the Spanish army redeemed its honour somewhat by heroic defences at Tudela, Espinosa, and Somosierra, to name but a few. By February of 1809, Spain was under effective French control, leaving Napoleon confident enough to return to Paris. By the fall of 1810, Portugal too was once again under control. Popular resistance, known to the Spanish as the Guerilla, would drag on for many years.

The Last Coalition Edit

France was now the dominant power in Europe, to a degree not seen since the days of Charlemagne. But although French power was secure in the west, danger still loomed in the east, in the form of the Russian and Austrian Empires. Neither felt secure in a French-dominated Europe, and both yearned to avenge their past humiliations. Seeing the Spanish revolt as their last best chance of catching Napoleon flat-footed, they formed what would come to be known as the Fifth Coalition in 1809, and declared war on France. On April 10th, Austrian forces under the command of Archduke Charles - Emperor Francis II's younger brother - invaded Bavaria in force, while Russian forces marched into the Duchy of Warsaw; Napoleon's most ferociously loyal client state. Due to faulty intelligence, and having not expected the Austrians to attack for another week at least, Napoleon was caught off-guard.

With the Austrians crossing the River Isar in force, and his own forces divided, Napoleon had to act quickly. Arriving in Donauworth on the 17th, he ordered all his forces to deploy behind the River Ilm within 48 hours. He was fortunate that one of the two formations menaced by the Austrians was III Corps, led by the renowned 'Iron Marshal' Louis-Nicolas Davout. Having anticipated trouble, Davout had already withdrawn his corps from its position at Regensberg, only to run into Austrian columns near Neustadt on the 19th. Davout repulsed their attacks easily, and gave Napoleon a new idea; to have his forces under Marshals Massena and Outdinot strike south-east towards Landshut, taking the distracted Austrians in the rear. The plan started well, but fell apart as the Austrians withdrew faster than Napoleon had expected. On the 21st, he recieved word that Davout was under attack near Teugen-Hausen, by an Austrian force that outnumbered him two-to-one. In a strategic masterstroke that would become known as the Landshut Maneouvre, Napoleon realigned his forces and marched on the town of Eckmuhl. Near the town, they faced an Austrian force of around 36,000 men, determined to hold them back and keep the Austrian line of retreat open. On April 22nd, allied German troops under General Vandamme stormed the bridge at Eckmuhl and captured the town, while Davout's troops took the town of Unterlaichling. Charles ordered a general retreat, and a serious of cavalry clashes ensued as the French tried to force a rout.

Eckmuhl was a clear victory, with 12,000 Austrian dead as opposed to 6,000 French, but it was not decisive. Unable to prevent the Austrian army escaping into Bohemia, Napoleon turned his attention to Vienna. After defeating an Austrian force at Ebersberg on May 3rd, he captured Vienna on the 13th; the second time he had taken that city. Spurred on by this disgrace, Charles marched his army back to Vienna, arriving on the 16th and 17th of May. Napoleon responded by crossing the river on the 20th, via a bridgehead between the villages of Aspern and Essling. Fighting over the two villages raged for two days, with a French victory being prevented only when Archduke Charles committed his final reserve, personally leading the Zach Infantry Regiment into action. When Napoleon recieved word that Austrian barges were attacking his bridges, he halted the attack and withdrew, the Austrians being too exhausted to pursue. The Battle of Aspern-Essling would be remembered as one of Napoleon's few defeats, made worse by the death of Marshal Jean Lannes, a personal friend and one of his most able commanders.

Determined not to be beaten a second time, Napoleon did not attempt to cross the Danube again until June 30th, with his army and his positions along the river strongly reinforced. By this point his army numbered around 165,000, containing French, German, and Italian troops. Archduke Charles was soon aware of the crossings, but chose not to oppose them. To do so would mean fighting the French on an area of flat ground known as the Marchfield, where the French cavalry would have a clear advantage. On July 5th he pulled his army back to the high ground, positioning his defences around the village of Wagram. A series of skirmishes ensued, as Napoleon's cavalry and artillery harassed his retreating forces. By 18:00 on the 5th, Napoleon had achieved his primary objective; his army was across the river in force. But fearing that the Austrians would escape under cover of darkness, he ordered an immediate attack; quipping ground I can recover, time never. His forces attacked along a broad front, only to be repulsed by heavy Austrian fire. Encouraged by this success, Charles launched a full-scale attack the next morning, hoping to catch the French in a double envelopment. Napoleon managed to halt his advance, and assembled a grand battery in the centre to pound the Austrian positions. His subsequent offensive drove the Austrians back, and forced them to withdraw.

Though Charles had once again gotten his mauled army off the battlefield intact, it was the beginning of the end for the Austrians. Napoleon pursued his treating forces, and forced a battle at Znaim four days later, on the 10th of July. The battle ended with an armistice, and would be followed up by the Treaty of Schonbrunn on October 14th. Napoleon agreed to this over the advice of some of his Marshals, who called on him to continue and destroy the Austrian Empire utterly. But with Russian troops besieging Warsaw and menacing his German allies, Napoleon needed an end to hostilities. The campaign had been a great success, but his losses were heavy, at around 37,000 at Wagram alone. But as fortune would have it, the problem was in the process of solving itself. The Russians had entered the war only reluctantly, and had faced stiff resistance from Polish troops defending the Duchy of Warsaw. As news of the Znaim armistice came north, soon to be followed by French troops, the Russians abandoned their siege of Warsaw and retreated back into their own territory. Napoleon decided to let them go for the moment, focussing his attention on the Schonbrunn negotiations. He rewarded his allies Bavaria and Warsaw with Bavaria and West Galicia respectively, while taking Trieste and southern Croatia for himself. Austria was in turn forced to recognize Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain, along with his other conquests.

War and Peace Edit

Despite Russian reluctance to join the Fifth Coalition, further war between France and Russia was all but inevitable. Russia was rich in raw materials, but lacking in manufacturing capacity; making it economically dependent on the French Empire. Also, the transfer of West Galicia to the Duchy of Warsaw was regarded in Tsar Alexander's court as a threat to Russian interests. Napoleon in turn felt betrayed by Russian involvement in the previous war, and believed that Russia could not be trusted. Tensions bubbled under the surface for two years, until war finally broke out in 1812. Napoleon struck first, crossing the river Neiman on June 24th. Estimates as to the size of his army vary from just over 400,000 to over 600,000; either way, it was the largest single army Europe had ever seen. Hopelessly outnumbered, the Russian defenders fell back.

As the French advanced into Russian Poland, they faced a problem that would torment them throughout the campaign. Though Napoleon had provided lavishly for his army, the parlous state of the roads made it difficult, if not impossible, for the supply wagons to keep up. This was made worse by Napoleon pushing the army hard in the hope of catching the Russians; who complicated matters further in their own special way. As the Russans withdrew, they removed or destroyed all food supplies in the area; leaving the French with nothing to forage. Upon reaching Vilnius on June 28th, Napoleon had lost ten thousand horses; making the task of supplying his forced-marching armies all the harder. By the time he reached Borodino, where the Russian armies were massing against him, his army was down to no more than 190,000 effectives. The Russian army he faced there was smaller, but well dug-in around Borodino, in earth-works that would come to be known as Bagration Fleches, for the General commanding them. The Russians put up a hard fight, and it took the commitment of the Imperial Guard to finally break the defenders, and open the road to Moscow.

More to come

GovernmentEdit

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National Governments

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SocietyEdit

2010 Refugee Crisis

EconomyEdit

MilitaryEdit

The EU's armed forces are made up of the combined forces of the individual member states, known as 'State forces'. These function as part of a standardized command structure, centered around Central Command HQ in Paris. Uniforms and equipment have also been standardized under the Millennium Treaty.

European Special Forces Directorate (EuroForce) Edit

The European Special Forces Command is a separate special operations branch of the wider EU military. Known as EuroForce, or the 'Specials', it specializes in rapid-reaction and unconventional warfare, and was the first EU formation to receive knightmares.   Its primary and oldest contingent is the Rapid Reaction Corps, first created under the Millenium Treaty to provide a unified military force that could act at the request of any member-state, or for the union as a whole, without the political complications that had marred the EU-Soviet War.  The Special Operations Corps was added shortly afterwards, followed by the Paladin Corps in 2010 ATB, when the effectiveness of knightmare frames had become apparent. 

EuroForce was first employed for peacekeeping operations, both along the former EU-Soviet frontier and elsewhere, quickly accruing a reputation for professionalism and courage.  But it was during the war with Britannia that EuroForce would truly make its name.  Free to act without political interference, and having largely avoided the malaise that afflicted the state forces, EuroForce proved itself the equal and sometimes the better of its Britannian opponents.  Though respected by ally and enemy alike, EuroForce's prominence nevertheless galvanized political opposition; it's opponents portraying it as a pack of crazed militarists, careless of human life and scornful of the popular will.   

- The Rapid Reaction Corps consists of independent airborne brigades,  drawn from individual state armies.  Each brigade numbers around three thousand men, generally built around three infantry battalions and including a single squadron of twelve knightmares. 

- The Special Operations Corps consists of independent units focussed on different roles.  The corps includes airborne and seaborne units, as well as elite light infantry, recon, and unconventional warfare units. 

- The Paladin Corps consists of knightmares in independent squadrons or companies.  It acts as the training cadre for EuroForce Devicers, and those of the EU forces as a whole. 


European Security Directorate (EuroSec)

Aegis Network

EU military doctrine, as formulated by Central Command after the signing of the Millennium Treaty, is focused on territorial defense over all. Much of continental Europe is protected by the 'Aegis' network, a interconnected web of fortifications, underground bunkers, weapons installations, and factories. Operating in combination with mobile forces, these defenses have rendered Europe all but impervious to direct attack. Unfortunately this system did not extend in its entirety over the former Soviet Union, and was of little help against the Britannian invasion; though by the spring of 2018 it has deterred Britannian attempts to open a second front against continental Europe.

The defenses themselves were inspired by the successes and failings of the Maginot Line, which helped protect France from German invasion in the Second War of the Alliances. Europe's coastline has been fortified with networks of bunkers and tunnels, from which mobile defenders can deploy rapidly. Vital strategic points are defended with more extensive installations, including static weapons. These fortresses, resupplied by underground tunnels, can hold out for extended periods.

An unfortunate side-effect of Aegis' effectiveness was its contribution to widespread complacency in the early years of the EU-Britannian War. For many Europeans, the war was sufficiently far away for them to think of matters other than victory. It took eight hard years, and Britannia's armies looming at Europe's door, to make them think otherwise.

Famous and Infamous EuropeansEdit

King Michael of Great BritainEdit

Miguel GandolfyEdit

Richard DresslerEdit

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